Evaluating international competitiveness and comparative advantage of European travel services

Autores

  • João Bento

Palavras-chave:

competitividade do turismo, vantagem comparativa revelada, serviços de viagens, comércio de serviços, União Europeia

Resumo

Este artigo analisa a competitividade internacional e do padrão dos fluxos de comércio no sector dos serviços de viagens nos 27 países membros da União Europeia, através da abordagem das vantagens comparativas reveladas, com dados sobre importação e exportação, para o período 2004-2012. Pretende-se identificar possíveis mudanças estruturais ao nível dos fluxos comerciais destes países no sentido de averiguar como a competitividade externa deste sector tem sido afetada pela crise financeira global desde 2008. Os resultados sugerem que a competitividade externa da maioria dos países da UE manteve-se estável ao longo do período em análise. Os resultados não identificam um enfraquecimento da intensidade das vantagens comparativas. No entanto, os países do sul da Europa, nomeadamente a Grécia, Itália e Portugal têm visivelmente melhorado a sua competitividade externa. Os países do sul e do leste europeus apresentam vantagens comparativas fortes em serviços de viagens, enquanto os países do norte e da Europa central têm um perfil menos competitivo. Os primeiros são especializados em produtos homogêneos e os outros em serviços de viagens diferenciados embora especializando-se com uma desvantagem comparativa. Estes resultados implicam que os decisores políticos devem atualizar os seus serviços de viagens e os seus produtos turísticos, especialmente nos países detentores de uma vantagem comparativa revelada baixa, para melhorar a sua competitividade e sustentar o crescimento econômico.

Referências

Adams, P. D. & Parmenter, B. R. (1995). An applied general equilibrium analysis of the economic effects of tourism in a quite small, quite open economy. Applied Economics, 27(10), 985-994.

Algieri, B. (2006). International tourism specialisation of small countries. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(1), 1-12.

Balassa, B. (1965). Trade liberalisation and “revealed” comparative advantage. The Manchester School, 33(2), 99-123.

Balassa, B. (1977). Revealed comparative advantage: An analysis of relative export shares of the industrial counries, 1952-1971. The Manchester School, 45(4), 327-344.

Balassa, B. & Noland, M. (1989). Revealed comparative advantage in Japan and the United States. Journal of International Economic Integration, 4(4), 8-22.

Ballance, R. H., Forstner, H. & Murray, T. (1987). Consistency tests of alternative measures of comparative advantage. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 69(1), 157-161.

Bobirca, A. & Bucuresti, A. (2007). Assessing the international competitiveness of tourism services trade. Romanian Economic Journal, 23, 19-44.

Crouch, G. I. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12-23.

Donges, J. B. & Riedel, J. (1977). The expansion of manufactured exports in developing countries: An empirical assessment of supply and demand issues. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 113(1), 58-87.

Dornbusch, R., Fischer, S. & Samuelson, P. A. (1977). Comparative advantage, trade, and payments in a Ricardian model with a continuum of goods. The American Economic Review, 67(5), 823-839.

EC. (2007). European Union international trade statistics. Analytical aspects data 1997-2005: European Commission.

EC. (2011). EU industrial structure 2011. Trends and performance: European Commission.

Eilat, Y. & Einav, L. (2004). Determinants of international tourism: a three-dimensional panel data analysis. Applied Economics, 36(12), 1315-1327.

Ethier, W. J. (1986). The multinational firm. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 101(4), 805-833. doi: 10.2307/1884179

Ethier, W. J. & Markusen, J. R. (1996). Multinational firms, technology diffusion and trade. Journal of International Economics, 41(1–2), 1-28.

Glass, A. J. & Saggi, K. (2002). Multinational firms and technology transfer. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 104(4), 495-513.

Grubel, H. G. & Lloyd, P. J. (1971). The empirical measurement of intra-

industry trade. Economic Record, 47(4), 494-517.

Helpman, E. (1981). International trade in the presence of product differentiation, economies of scale and monopolistic competition: a Chamberlin–Heckscher–Ohlin approach. Journal of International Economics, 11(3), 305–340.

Helpman, E. & Krugman, P. R. (1985). Market structure and foreign trade. increasing returns, imperfect competition and the international economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Heung-Sik, K. & Narae, L. (2010). Specialization analysis of tourism industry on a basis of revealed comparative advantage. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 10(1), 1-12.

Ietto-Gillies, G. (2000). What role for multinationals in the new theories of international trade and location? International Review of Applied Economics, 14(4), 413-426.

Jackman, M., Lorde, T., Lowe, S. & Alleyne, A. (2011). Evaluating tourism competitiveness of small island developing states: a revealed comparative advantage approach. Anatolia, 22(3), 350-360.

Katircioglu, S. (2009). Tourism, trade and growth: the case of Cyprus. Applied Economics, 41(21), 2741-2750.

Khan, H., Toh, R. S. & Chua, L. (2005). Tourism and trade: Cointegration and granger causality tests. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2), 171-176.

Krugman, P. (1979). A model of innovation, technology transfer, and the world distribution of income. Journal of Political Economy, 87(2), 253-266.

Krugman, P. R. (1979). Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade. Journal of International Economics, 9(4), 469-479.

Krugman, P. R. (1980). Scale economies, product differentiation and the pattern of trade. American Economic Review, 70(5), 950-959.

Krugman, P. R. (1981). Increasing returns and economic geography. Journal of Political Economy, 99(3), 483-499.

Kulendran, N. & Wilson, K. (2000). Is there a relationship between international trade and international travel? Applied Economics, 32(8), 1001-1009.

Lancaster, K. (1980). Intra-industry trade under perfect monopolistic competition. Journal of International Economics, 10(2), 151-175.

Lim, C. (1997). Review of international tourism demand models. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 835-849.

Markusen, J. R. (1984). Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade. Journal of International Economics, 16(3–4), 205-226.

Markusen, J. R. (1995). The boundaries of multinational enterprises and the theory of international trade. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2), 169-189.

Markusen, J. R. & Venables, A. J. (1998). Multinational firms and the new trade theory. Journal of International Economics, 46(2), 183-203.

Narayan, P. K. (2004). Economic impact of tourism on Fiji's economy: empirical evidence from the computable general equilibrium model. Tourism Economics, 10(4), 419-433.

Nowak, J.-J., Sahli, M. & Cortés-Jiménez, I. (2007). Tourism, capital good imports and economic growth: theory and evidence for Spain. Tourism Economics, 13(4), 515-536.

Nowak, J.-J., Sahli, M. & Sgro, P. M. (2003). Tourism, trade and domestic welfare. Pacific Economic Review, 8(3), 245-258.

Ohlin, B. (1933). Interregional and international trade. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Ottaviano, G. I. P. & Puga, D. (1998). Agglomeration in the global economy: A survey of the "New Economic Geography". World Economy, 21(6), 707-731.

Prideaux, B. (2005). Factors affecting bilateral tourism flows. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3), 780-801.

Samuelson, P. (1948). International trade and the equalisation of factor prices. The Economic Journal, 58(230), 163-184.

Seyoum, B. (2007). Revealed comparative advantage and competitiveness in services: A study with special emphasis on developing countries. Journal of Economic Studies, 34(5), 376-388.

Shan, J. & Wilson, K. (2001). Causality between trade and tourism: empirical evidence from China. Applied Economics Letters, 8(4), 279-283.

Song, H., Dwyer, L., Li, G. & Cao, Z. (2012). Tourism economics research: A review and assessment. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3), 1653-1682.

Vernon, R. (1966). International investment and international trade in the product cycle. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80(2), 190-207.

Webster, A., Fletcher, J., Hardwick, P. & Morakabati, Y. (2007). Tourism and empirical applications of international trade theory: a multi-country analysis. Tourism Economics, 13(4), 657-674.

Yeats, A. (1985). On the appropriate interpretation of the revealed comparative advantage index: Implications of a methodology based on industry sector analysis. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 121(1), 61-73.

Zhang, J. & Jensen, C. (2007). Comparative advantage: Explaining tourism flows. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1), 223-243.

Downloads

Publicado

2014-03-27

Como Citar

Bento, J. (2014). Evaluating international competitiveness and comparative advantage of European travel services. Tourism and Hospitality International Journal, 2(1). Obtido de http://thijournal.isce.pt/index.php/THIJ/article/view/117